How to Value a Mobile Home Park

Like most real estate the Seller usually wants too much and the purchaser wants to pay too little for a mobile home park. Certain buyers may have different motivations for buying a certain park (1031 money, ability to obtain better financing, conversions to other uses, and location to where they live). In this book we will only look only at the value of a mobile home park for the typical buyer who will continue to operate it as a mobile home park.

Anyone that has seen an appraisal on a house or most types of real estate will have heard mention of the 3 approaches to determining the value of that real estate. They are the Cost, Sales, and Income Approach.

Unless you are coming up with the value of a brand new mobile home park or one that is predominately vacant, I do not see any reason to use the cost approach. It is not likely that a new mobile home park will be built nearby and what it would cost to build a new park does not even take into account the amount of time, effort, and money it takes to fill that park up with occupied and paying residents.

As far as the Sales or Market Comparison approach to value, this is also highly suspect. This is based on comparing the sale of the subject property with other recent sales and adjusting for differences that you may or may not know about. Problems with this approach include varying expenses, rents, and management. Whether you are an investor or appraiser I would just use this approach as potential information and not draw any conclusions from it. Here is a quick example of the improper use of this approach from my experience:


Property A: 50 lots, 100% occupied, Lot Rent of $179.00. Lots will hold a maximum home size of a 14′ x 60′ – Water and Sewer is submetered back to residents – NOI of about $75,000.

Property B (10 miles from Property A): 53 lots, 10 vacancies, Lot Rent of $150.00. Lots will hold 16′ x 80’s and doublewides. Park pays water and sewer – NOI of $45,000.

Property B is sold in December of 2004 for $425,000.

The owner of Property A(one of my LLC’s) goes to the bank to refinance the property in January of 2005. The appraiser appraises it at $400,000 and places the most emphasis on the Sales Comparison Approach as Property B just sold and it was a superior property in terms of size, appearance, and location. In fact in the appraisal report, he claims that we were charging too much and that our numbers were inflated.

After arguing with the bank and appraiser for a couple of weeks, we were refunded our money for the appraisal. In the meantime, we were approached by another investor who made us an offer of $645,000 for the park and we accepted and the sale closed by the end of March 2005. I really wanted to send the appraiser a copy of the closing statement with a nice letter but decided against it.

The point is that even though one park may look nice, be in a better location, and have so much more going for it on the surface, does not mean it is worth more per space or even worth as much per space as an inferior looking park.

As a side note, once I found out that property B was sold for $425,000 I was in contact with the new owner and tried to buy the park from him – I offered him $50,000 more than he had just paid and he didn’t want any part of it. He knew he had just made a tremendous buy and was already raising the rents and starting to get his lots filled up.

The third approach to value is the Income approach and I find that this is really the best and only way to evaluate a mobile home park correctly. I have come up with a basic formula in which I value the park based on what it is currently doing, what it should be doing, and what it will do once I implement some basic changes and run it more efficiently.

Here is my standard process in estimating the value:

I want to know how many lots there are, how many are occupied and paying, what the lot rent is, what expenses the owner is paying, and who is responsible for the water lines, sewer lines, and roads. (Example Provided Below)

A good rule of thumb that I use to start with is that I take the number of occupied spaces and multiply this by the average monthly space rent and multiply this by 70.

For example if the park has 110 spaces with 10 vacancies, a monthly average space rent of $200. Then my initial value calculation is 100 x $200 x 70 = $1,400,000.

If the park is on the market for $3 million I will probably pass. If the park is on the market for $1,800,000 or less than I will probably look into it further. Remember this simple calculation is very generic and may or may not be the true indication of the value of a mobile home park.

In looking at the park in more detail, I will ask for actual operating income as well as actual operating expenses.

The operating expense ratio can vary significantly from one park to another in the same city even if located adjacent to one another. One of the largest expenses in a park is the water and sewer expense. If the residents of the park are paying this expense then you can expect the operating expense ratio to be as much as 15% less than the average.

I owned a park in Northeastern Texas a few years ago that had the lowest expense ratio that I have ever dealt with(I regret ever selling it). Although this park had large lots 60′ x 120′ and up, it was filled with old homes (trailers). We even had some old RV’s and campers renting lots. Usually when you encounter a park such as this with old run down homes and trailers they are usually stacked on top of each other with about 20 per acre. This was not the case. Each home was on a large lot and every time I drove through the park it seemed that the homes had aged several more years. Anyway, the park had 94 spaces and each space was separately metered for all utilities by the city and utility companies. The streets were owned by the city, the city was responsible for the water and sewer lines up to each home. The city paid for the street lights. We had basically 5 expenses:

Taxes: $1100 per year (the assessed value of this park was under $60,000!)

Insurance: $2,000 per year

Management: $700 per month plus free lot rent – about $10,000 per year

Telephone: $0 – the manager used his phone number

Repairs: $2000 per year on average (the only repair we had was each time a home moved out and a new home moved in we had to update the electric pedestal – about 3 per year)

Office & Travel: $600 per year

In the 3 years I owned the park, the expenses never totaled more than $16,000.

The gross collected income over these 3 years averaged just over $135,000. So this park had an expense ratio of under 12%.

This is truly an exception to the rule and the manager I had at this park was awesome and we had collections in excess of 97%. It is rare that you are able to find a park with such a low expense ratio but it is possible. The usual case is that you find a park that is listed for sale and the projections or proformas have expenses that are ridiculously low and may not have expenses listed for repairs, capital improvements, management, insurance and so on.

The value a mobile home park may be $2 million for one person and $1.5 million to someone else. The key is really deciding what you are willing to pay based on your expectations of what type of return you want on your investment. This return on investment will come in several different forms:

o Monthly/Yearly Cash Flow

o Tax Savings

o Equity Buildup

o Appreciation

o Rent Increases and Expense Reductions

In analyzing the financial statements and tax returns, they are often different. The financial statements usually have more income and less expenses and the tax returns usually have less income and more expenses.(however, I have seen in some cases that the tax returns are also overstated in order to show a better net income when it comes time to sell or refinance a park. If by paying taxes on an additional 20k in taxes for a couple of years increases the value of the park by 200k then a real sophisticated and dishonest seller may be trying to pull a fast one. So be careful.

The key then is to reconcile the tax return with the profit and loss statement and then interject reality into the whole process.

Figuring out the actual income is usually not too difficult. You can take the actual number of spaces in the park and multiply this by the actual rents being charged and subtract out a reasonable allowance for collections and you should be able to come up with a good estimate of the income. I usually use 3% as the collections expense.

The next thing to do is to come up with the anticipated expenses based not only on how the park is currently operating but also based on how the park will operate with you as the new owner. For example, if the current owner is managing the park, then you need to plug in an amount for management and payroll taxes and workers comp. If the park has vacancies and there is no advertising expense, then you need to plug in an amount for advertising. And so on.

Common expenses for Mobile Home Parks. Not every park has all of these expenses and some have additional expenses but this is a good starting point.


Bank Service Charges


Insurance: Liability

Insurance: Property

Insurance: Workers Comp

Interest: Mortgage

Legal and Accounting

Licenses and Permits

Maintenance Labor

Management Offsite

Management Onsite

Mowing & Landscaping


Rent Discounts & Incentives

Repairs: Equipment

Repairs: Property

Reserve for Capital Improvements

Supplies: Maintenance

Supplies: Office

Taxes: Payroll

Taxes: Property



Utilities: Electric

Utilities: Gas

Utilities: Trash

Utilities: Water & Sewer

In most cases when you review a sales package for a mobile home park for sale it will not mention any reserve for capital expenditures. This really should be addressed in your evaluation of the park and in the due diligence phase. Items like replacing all the water lines or sewer lines for older parks, resurfacing the roads, topping all the trees, are large expenses that can occur in the future and they should be budgeted for. While they are not expensed for income tax purposes they are capitalized and depreciated over 15 years or so, and are therefore real costs. I would include at least 2-3% of gross income as a Reserve for Capital Improvements in your numbers when determining the value.

You will find some sellers that expense everything and then find the opposite where owners capitalize as much as possible to make the bottom line look better. Spend some time going through all the expenses and estimating future capital improvements.

After coming up with the income that the park is currently generating and deducting from that all the anticipated operating expenses including the reserve for capital expenditures you will have what is called the Net Operating Income.

If you take the Net Operating Income and divide this by the price you come up with the Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate). Also, if you divide the Net Operating Income by the Cap Rate you come up with the price and so on.

Now this is where subjectivity comes into play. I remember not too many years ago you could buy 50 -100 unit mobile home parks valued in the 12 – 14% cap rate range. It is hard to find these deals anymore. Add into that the fact that the interest rates were so low for the last few years and the 12-14 caps are now 7-10 caps. The demand for good quality mobile home parks is and has been much greater than the supply. There are even stabilized parks that I have seen purchased for 5 & 6 percent caps. These were not just for redevelopment purposes either.

What is a good cap rate? The answer is really up to the buyer. Some buyers tell me they want at least a 7 cap, some say 10 cap, some say 15 cap(I say good luck to these people).

So in reality, a certain mobile home park will have a different value to each and every person. The idea is to decide what you want or will require in terms of your investment and then work to make the deal fit these requirements.

If you want a 10 cap on a property priced at a 7 cap, it does not necessarily mean you should pass on the deal. For instance, what if the park has rents that are $50 under market and through your inspections and due diligence you know you could raise the rent to market rates in 2 months. What if this would make it a 10 Cap? Another possibility would be to put it under contract and then in your due diligence you tell the seller that you want to move forward with the purchase but in order to do so and to satisfy your lenders requirements, obtain an adequate appraisal, and/or make the required return on your investment, you need to have him send a rent increase notice out right away so the rates are where you want them at closing.

In another example, suppose the park has an NOI of $80,000 and is priced at 1 million. Also, suppose that the park is currently paying for water and sewer and this expense is running approximately $30,000 per year. You know that you could install water meters and pass this expense on to the residents. You want a 10 cap on your purchase. You could very well purchase this park and realize the return you want very quickly in situations such as this. If the rents are under market or there are expenses that can be reduced or other ways to increase the net income with minimal work and cash outlay you might pay extra for a park if it otherwise meets your investment criteria.

As my general rule when dealing with parks that are borderline but have the potential to increase in value and offer an acceptable return on investment by raising rents or reducing expense: I generally will add up to 50% of the value from these quick fixes to my offer on a park. So if I can increase the rates to market and reduce expenses and this increases the value of the park by $100,000, then I would consider adding $50,000 to my offer price if necessary. After all, we should earn something from our expertise and doing what the owner could have done already.

Other considerations on the value of the park will be the entrances, streets, landscaping, utilities, parking, lights, storage sheds, number of singles versus doubles, swimming pools, clubhouses, etc. The nicer the park typically the lower the cap rate and the easier it will to tap into better financing programs.

Other Value Considerations:

Vacant Lots:

When purchasing a mobile home park that has vacant lots which are ready to be occupied, what value, if any should you place on these lots? We just came up with the value we are willing to pay based on the NOI and the cap rate we are looking for. So, unless these homesites will fill up with minimal effort and investment, I would not place much of a value on them at all. In fact, having empty homesites that are hard to rent out will end up costing you money in terms of monthly maintenance and time. I would definitely point this out to the seller as a negotiating point. Many sellers like to say there is upside on all the vacant spaces. However, if this upside was easy to obtain, then the seller would have most likely realized it before selling.

In some cases, you will be able to fill up the homesites with minimal investment and effort so you may place a value of 25-50% depending on your comfort level. I would definitely lean toward the 25%.

Park Owned Homes & Notes:

When purchasing a mobile home park where there are park owned rentals, rent-to-own homes, and mobile home notes it is important to break out the income and expenses from this portion of the business from the lot/space rental portion.

Many times the income and expenses from the entire operations are lumped together and the seller or broker says the property is priced at say a 10 cap.

Here is the problem with this approach of lumping it all together:

Suppose you have 10 mobile homes that are renting for $350 above the normal lot rent per month and that there is an additional expense of $100 per mobile home each month. You basically have a net of $250 per month for each home or $3,000 per year. If you are capping this income at a 10 cap, you are placing a value of $30,000 per mobile home. Now there may be some nice doublewides that are being rented in some parks that are worth $30,000 but it is not the norm. Most of the time, these homes are older singlewide homes that may have a value from $3,000 to $10,000. So if you are valuing them at $30,000 you are paying too much!

Another situation occurs when you have mobile home notes or rent-to-own homes. Lets say you have a note payment of $200 per month in addition to the lot rent and that the balance left is $8,000 on the note. The monthly payments of $200 per month will add up to $2,400 per year and if you cap that at 10% then you are paying $24,000 for an $8,000 note. Not a great investment move!

So what do you pay for these types of additional income sources?

Mobile Homes Rented Out: Many people will say that you should pay what the home is worth on the market if sold for cash or for cash with outside financing. My formula is that I will pay about 75% of what I feel I can sell the home to the current renter for on a rent-to-own agreement with a term of 3-5 years and also increase the lot rent in the process..

Here is an example:

A home is being rented for $425 per month and the lot rent is $200 per month. I will approach the current renter and tell them if they continue paying rent for 3 more years, then I will assign the title over to them and the home will be theirs. In the rent-to-own agreement, I specify that the lot rent is $225 per month(not $200) and after 36 monthly payments of $200 plus lot rent, the home title will be transferred to them.

In this case, I would not only be receiving 36 x $200 or $7,200 for the home, but I have also increased the lot rent for that home in the process. When I get ready to raise rents for other residents in the park, I can always say that there are other people already paying the higher rates. So, in this case I would pay somewhere in the $5,000 to $6,000 range for this home. ($7,200 x 75% = $5,400)

Mobile Home Notes and Rent-to-Own Agreements: When I am purchasing notes and agreements that have already been created by the current seller, I will typically use the lower of the value of:

o 75% of the value of what I can resell the home to a new renter in case of default as calculated above; or

o 65% of the future note or rent-to-own payments.

Source by Dave Reynolds

3 Tips for Removing Hemorrhoids at Home

If you would like to remove hemorrhoids at home, saving yourself the time and embarrassment from going to a hospital, then you'll want to read this article. Specifically we'll talk about why taking a warm bath can help with your hemorrhoids, why you need to avoid constipation and some medication which you should take to remove the hemorrhoids completely. After reading this article, you will know exactly what to do to quickly remove your hemorrhoids.

1. Relieve Immediate Symptoms

Taking a warm bath can help relieve immediate symptoms of hemorrhoids. The heat from the bath can stop the itching and irritation from your hemorrhoids. It would also help you relax, making you feel much better. Also you should apply an ice pack to your rectal region. Ice pack can reduce the swelling of your hemorrhoids, and numb any pain you are experiencing. However make sure you wrap the ice pack in a towel, to prevent it from damaging you. These simple treatments can only relieve immediate symptoms of hemorrhoids, but not cure it completely.

2. Avoid Constipation

Hemorrhoids are caused by too much pressure in your bowel region while passing stool. Therefore, constipation is your worst enemy. To prevent constipation, all you have to do is to stay hydrated, by drinking at least 8 glasses of water everyday. Also you should add more fiber to your diet. Eating plenty of vegetables can easily get you the 30 grams of fiber you need daily. If you take these steps to prevent constipation, you will not have to worry about hemorrhoids in the future.

3. Use Hemorrhoids Medication

Using hemorrhoids medication would be the best way of removing hemorrhoids at home. These medications are easy to use, and avoid the need to go to the hospital.

A hemorrhoids spray, like Venapro has been clinically tested for its effectiveness against hemorrhoids. It is absorbed into the bloodstream by spraying under the tongue. Then it quickly acts and relieves the symptoms as well as removes the hemorrhoids. I would highly recommend Venapro, because I used it when I had hemorrhoids.

Now you know how to remove your hemorrhoids without leaving the comfort of your home, it's time for you to put these tips to use and forever say goodbye to hemorrhoids. Taking a warm bath and applying ice pack can relieve any immediate symptoms, constipation is your worst enemy when it comes to hemorrhoids and you should use a hemorrhoid spray called Venapro for quickly removing your hemorrhoids. Put these tips to use and completely remove your hemorrhoids without ever leaving your home.

Source by Lloyd Delgado

Converting a Barn Into a Home

In late 2000, I bought a piece of property that was used as a farm for the past three generations. And even though just under six acres, was one of the prettiest pieces of land you ever laid eyes on. One half of the property is wooded and the remainder is rolling hills. At the westernmost section of the land runs a bubbling brook fed by a gushing spring. The water in that spring is crystal clear, fresh, and cool, all year round.

My wife and I borrowed my families RV and moved onto the property that same year with all intentions of building an English Style Tudor home on the front side of the property.

I'm an architectural designer by trade and had spent months laying out my wife's dream home. (OK, I admit it was mine too!) It was going to be built using trees off the land that I spent six weeks cutting down and shaping into 8 "x 8" beams with my chain saw.

Then we hit a snag. The place where we were to build our dream home sat too close to the power lines that ran across the front of the property. Sure, I could get the utility board to move them, but not at their expense. I'd have to pay for the entire shooting match and that just was not in the budget.

By the time we got the news about the power lines, we had already spent nine weeks in that old RV and to be honest, it was getting sort of cramped seeing that three of our five children were still living at home. I do not care how big the RV is, if there is a 5 year old, two young teens, and two adults packed in it, life gets interesting. My wife's nerves were getting a bit frazzled and to be honest, so were mine.

On our farm, the only other suitable place to build sat the most beautiful old barn you ever laid eyes on. 64 'wide by 30' deep. This barn had good solid construction with 6 "x 6" columns, true 2 "x 6" girts and rafters, 1 "x 10" & 12 "planking on the walls and lofts floors. All rough sawn and true size. This building was nearly a century old and twice as solid as modern structures today.

When I got the news about the house, I tried to break it to my wife as easy as possible so I took her out for a moon light stroll. You know, one of those romantic type walks that women just seem to get all gushy about. On our stroll we walked up to the barn where I had stored all those beams I had made to keep them in the dry until needed.

Sweety, I said. "We can not build the house right now. If I have to clear land to build it, there will be another three to four month wait before I can even start construction." Then, off the cuff I said; "Maybe I could build us an apartment in the barn until I can start on the house." Her eyes lit up and she asked me; "How long would it take to build?" I thought for a second and decided it would take probably a month to complete.

Her excitement returned and seeing her face light up like that spurred me on to swinging a hammer. I selected the widest open part of the barn and started the construction. I'm glad I had the utility board hook power up to the barn as it really made life easier to use my power tools.

I visited our local saw mill and bought as much raw lumber as I could. First I constructed a new loft area using some of the beams I had cut out, then using those same beams, started cutting out stairs. Next I enclosed the face of the opening with native rock and mortar at about three feet tall and then a wood wall on top of that.

I built the floor to the Living Room and Den and then started framing the Kitchen which would protrude out of the back of the barn. Next, the loft I had previously built became mine and my wife's bedroom. From there I opened an area into the existing loft and started building the bathroom and two other bedrooms.

It has been close to eight years now and that barn apartment has become a full blown home complete with five Bedrooms, a Living Room, Den / Dining Room, Kitchen, Full Bathroom, Study, Sunroom / Laundry, Sewing Room, and a Garage. We have not even used up a third of the barn yet and our square footage is already around 2064 sq. ft. of heated area. That square footage does not include the Garage, or Woodshop. The Garage is 13'-4 "by 20 'and the Wood Shop is the same size.

If you are planning to convert an outbuilding or barn into a home, you are in for a treat. Not only is there a rustic beauty but a whole bunch of possibilities for layout and use.

Source by Tim J. Davis

The Best Gun (For Home Defense)

As a young hunter then a soldier and former Policeman I've been around weapons most all my life and to me they are just tools machines if you will, machines that have to be respected. But for my wife well … she was just plain scared to the bone of the tools of my trade. But years back hearing me talk with the guys about work and the break-ins, the home invasions and other heinous acts that happen to good people she finally asked me to recommend something she could use.

I instantly replied a Shotgun is your best defense and my little wife launched into a ten minute dissertation as to why that was not her weapon of choice. Once she ended her little tirade I asked her if I could just state my case. I knew I did not have much time so I said; "Honey" that always helps. I explained the Shotgun I am talking about is small only 26 inches long and it does not weigh much and the stellar point about this machine is you do not need bullets. She worries because of the children in the house and those who visit.

I continued a Shotgun is a versatile little gun and has been around in one form or another since guns were invented and since we still use them today it speaks volumes for their consistency.
They can fire dangerous loads sure, but they can also shoot out bean bags or simply blanks. The point I was trying to make was nearly all men especially the bad guys know what a Shotgun is and the sight of the weapon can make a big mean nasty man turn to mush and when you charge the gun or put a bullet in the chamber to shoot it. The Shotgun has a distinct sound kind of a loud click slam whack sound. When you hear it you know it and the sound will fill a man with fear.

The next week I took her to the range with her small new pistol grip shotgun and we learned all about the machine I told her if you hear someone breaking in the house or a stranger comes to the door call 911 first then just go back to the bedroom and grab the tool off the hooks above the sliding doors in the closet put two blank rounds in the tube and simply ask the person trying to gain access to the house; Who is It? If the reply is not what you wanted to hear simply say I have a gun and I know how to use it. If they keep trying to come in rack the shotgun CLICK-SLAM at this point be prepared to fire the weapon aim it towards the ceiling and BAM they are very loud let one go. The blanks will do some damage to the ceiling but I can always fix that.

When the Police arrive put the weapon down before answering the door. Today she is comfortable keeping the shotgun loaded with bird shot high up in the closet on hooks the kids do not even know it's up there. For added security she had me install a simple gun lock that can be easily removed. She feels safe and frankly so do I, she evens looks forward to going to the range with me. Wonder if I can talk her into shooting my magnum … Naw!

Source by John L. Snider Sr

The Benefits of Fireproof Home Safes

A home fire can destroy your house and all your belongings. You probably have smoke detectors on every floor, have a family escape plan, and know to call 911 in a home fire emergency. But have you protected your valuable possessions?

A fireproof home safe is an easy way to protect your most important documents and belongings in case of a home fire. A safe deposit box at your bank, however, is the safest way to store your important papers. But if you need more space or would just like to keep your important belongings at home, you need a fireproof home safe.

Most safes are fire-resistant, not fireproof. The fire-resistant safes are rated by the Underwriters Laboratories. They rate safes based on how long they can protect paper in a fire at different temperatures. Class-C fire-resistant safes will protect paper from a 1,700-degree fire for one hour, a class-B safe for two hours at 1,850-degrees, and a class-A for four hours at 2,000-degrees. You will need a specialized safe to protect computer documents like disks from fire.

Small fireproof safes start at around $ 50. These hold only a few hundred cubic inches and weigh less than 20 pounds. If you need more space, then you will need to spend more money. Larger fireproof home safes start at around $ 200, but can cost thousands. Fireproof safes that expensive are usually for guns or commercial use.

Many Internet retailers sell fireproof home safes, many at low wholesale prices, but you may have to pay for shipping. Try to see the safe in person before you buy it, since returning the safe will be expensive. Check out your local home security stores. Remember, you are putting your most important documents in the safe. Make sure it is the one you want.

Source by Steve Valentino

Home Remedy For Sinus Infection

Sinus infections are one of the most common infections across the world. Sinus attacks are caused by an infection in the sinuses or cavities that are present in the bones near the nose. When there is any swelling in these sinuses because of some infection, breathing becomes difficult, resulting in fever, headaches, and other discomforts. This is known as sinusitis.

Each sinus or cavity in the skull has an opening that allows free exchange of mucus and air. Each sinus is joined to the other by a mucous membrane lining. When there is an infection like hay fever or a disease like asthma, these sinuses and the lining become inflamed, causing air and mucus to be blocked inside or a vacuum to be created. This can cause pressure on the sinus walls, causing severe pain. Millions of dollars are spent for sinus medications and sinus research.

Sinus infections can cause a lot of pain and discomfort. Sometimes, the infection may also lead to some brain infections or other chronic problems. Though there is no effective remedy for sinus infections, a lot of comfort can be gained by treating the sinus symptoms like headaches, nasal discharge, nasal blocking, runny nose, ear / neck / cheek / jaw pain, swelling of eyelids, etc. However, acute or chronic sinus infections require prolonged treatments, comprised of antibiotics or therapies like saline nasal rinses, topical / oral decongestants, antihistamines, mucolytic agents, and intranasal corticosteroids.

Sinus infections can also be treated by some home remedies. A lot of relief can be obtained by inhaling steam from a vaporizer or a bowl of hot water. Applying a hot or a cold compress over the inflamed area would also provide relief. A decoction of mustard seed powder and water, instilled in the nostrils; eating jalapeno peppers; drinking juice of ripe grapes; applying a paste of cinnamon and water on the forehead; applying paste of ginger and water / milk on the forehead; applying paste of basil leaves, cloves, and dried ginger on the forehead; inhaling steam of eucalyptus oil; and drinking warm tea are all found to be effective in providing some relief. Drinking a lot of water and other fluids would also help. A great deal of rest is also required. However, it is better to consult a specialist if the infection persists.

Source by Eddie Tobey

Tapestry Wall Hangings Bring Excitement To Your Home Decor

A tapestry is a work of art that is normally used as a decorative wall hanging to liven up and beautify an otherwise ordinary, if not drab, area or space. The beginnings of these magnificent works of art can be traced as far back as the Hellenistic times. They are manufactured by the interweaving of two kinds of threads, namely warp threads and weft threads. Warp threads are laid out vertically and are stretched from the loom coming from the roller. Weft threats intersect the warp threads horizontally with the aid of the shuttle. These threads are typically made from natural fabric materials, such as cotton, wool and/or silk.

Two very different techniques are employed in the manufacture of these decorative wall hangings, the Haute-lisse technique and the Basse-lisse technique. Weaving is done vertically in the Haute-lisse loom as opposed to the Basse-lisse loom, where weaving is done horizontally. Although these two techniques are as dissimilar from each other as can be, it is really quite impossible to actually tell the difference between the two, especially when using the end result as a basis. Traditionally, these decorative works of art were handcrafted by craftsmen and artisans. Nowadays, although there are still some pieces made by skilled hands, most of them are already produced by machines and instruments that cut the construction time by more than half.

A variety of different themes are the subject matter of these unique wall decorations. The most popular themes available in the market today include Religious, European, Unicorn, Medieval or Middle Ages, Renaissance, Asian or Oriental, to name a few. The popularity of this particular type of artwork, regardless of its subject matter or theme, may probably be attributed to its versatility and usefulness. They can be used to decorate massive spaces like castles, mansions, churches and museums, as well as small spaces, like bedrooms, dining rooms and kitchens. They can also be used as insulation during hot months and they can cover cracks on wall, as well as other unsightly home interior blemishes.

Compared to other works of art, it is probably more practical and more beneficial to invest on these woven wall decorations. They need not be framed within a glass barrier. They have a more intricate texture and exude a warmer vibe, and are more sturdy and durable in comparison to other art pieces. So if you are looking for an interesting and unique piece of art that will add more life and color to your home (aside from being a conversation piece), look no further. Tapestry wall hangings will definitely be the answer to your search.

A new trend is being set by popular demand for famous artists works of art woven into tapestry wall hangings. Another exceptional art form for your wall decor.

Source by Alex Hanson

Helpful Hints For Hiring A Home Improvement Contractor

Most of us are aware of the fact that home improvement can be greatly helpful in enhancing its overall value. By making slight changes here and there, you can increase the value of your house. If you are a native of California, then you may find it very easy to locate home improvement services.

When you start searching for home improvement companies, you need to be careful because there are many cheats out there. You need to make sure that you do not land in the clutches of any con-men. It is essential for you to look for the legitimacy of the company before hiring it. Internet is the most suitable platform for searching a home improvement company.

If you are not Internet savvy, then you can not go through business directories for getting any remodeling contractor. If you get an experienced contractor, then you can change the entire look of a house at an affordable cost. If you are not financially sound, then you need to look for some funding for remodeling your house. In most of the cases, people get customer-friendly loans for availing the services of home improvements. For this purpose too, you can search on the Internet.

While looking for the home improvement companies, you need to consider the additional services provided by them. You can compare the rates and services offered by different companies because this may lead you to the best home remodeling company. You need to carefully scrutinize the terms and conditions of the company before finalizing the deal. Always look for a reputed company, as not only will it remodel your house but also move a step ahead of your expectations and provide your house with all the luxuries.

Most of the people believe that referrals are the best way of finding a quality company or contractor. The challenging thing about referrals is that you may not get more than one person, who have availed the services of the contractor. While you are on the look out for a contractor, your main aim has to be to get a reputed and successful contractor.

If you find a company through referral, then it is essential for you to ensure that it is a legitimate and reliable company, and most importantly, it suits your bill. Before finalizing the contract with a home improvements California company, you need to go through its history and customer reviews because it plays an essential part in judging the performance of the company.

Source by Benjamin Friedman

How Marble and Granite Can Transform Your Home Into Heaven

While constructing a home, every person wants to turn it into heaven with the most enduring structure and everlasting interiors. To achieve this dream they spend lot of time discussing the design and structure with architects and interior decorators. However, one thing which is common in every home construction plan is, use of Marble and Granite products.

Yes, it is true that Marble and Granite products are dominating the modern home construction. With help of exclusive stone products, one can transform their homes in heaven for everyday living. People often ask, "Is is possible to get the home of my dreams only by using marble and granite products?" The answer is NO. You can achieve the dream home look just by using marble and granite. You need to use them strategically in consultation with a construction expert (if you do not have experience of home construction and interior designing).

Here are some common application of stone products (made of granite or marble), which will provide durability and elegance to your home.

Flooring – This is among the most common use of marble in home construction. Nowadays, marble flooring can be seen in almost every home. People have options to choose from different colors and designs of marble for home flooring. It provides attractive look and is very easy to maintain. Some people also prefer using Granite for flooring purposes.

Exterior – Nowadays, stone products are being used not only in interiors but also in exterior of home. Yes, lightweight stone panels are a leading product used in exterior finish of homes. There are several advantages of using lightweight stone panels. They provide a soundproof environment and they also keep interior unaffected of external heat or cold. That means you get pleasant space for living.

Interiors – Marble and Granite products have been in interior decoration of homes for a long time. They are not only used as decorative pieces, but also as a strong component of construction providing durability as well as beauty to homes. For example marble columns, marble staircases, and marble fireplaces are some objects, which are used to provide beauty as well as durability to homes.

Kitchen & Bathroom – Nowadays, no home is complete without a modular kitchen and stylish bathroom equipped with marble flooring and granite countertops. Almost every home has a kitchen where granite countertops are in use as kitchen platform. They are ideal object for use in every home. Even in bathrooms, marble flooring, marble slabs, and tiles are used to give a modernized look.

Other Use of Marble – Apart from aforementioned uses, there are several other use of stone products made of marble or granite. Marble statues are among one of objects that are prime attraction of home of wealthy people.

In summary, we can say that using marble and granite products will certainly change the look of homes.

Source by Alexender Smith

Multi-Stage Filtration – A Home Water Purifier System That's Less Expensive and More Efficient

Understanding that you need a home water purifier is a good first step. Now, you need to learn how to identify an effective home purifier water system. There are numerous products on the market, but some of them are not really worthwhile investments.

A home water purifier can cost as little as $ 40 and as much as $ 800. You can actually mark the very cheap, as well as the very expensive, off of your shopping list.

The most expensive brands include a reverse osmosis or RO step. At one time RO was the best home purifier water system on the market, but technology has moved on.

We also know a lot more about the contaminants that are in our supplies than we did when RO was developed. Then, we thought more about pollutants we could see. Now, we think more about the invisible and microscopic chemicals that build up in our systems destroying our long term health and longevity.

The least expensive home purifier water system is made by Brita, a branch of the Clorox Bleach Company. They know how to remove chlorine, using granular activated carbon. They've used it for years to protect their factory workers from the harmful vapors that they are exposed to every day.

Chlorine gas is toxic to the nervous system. It irritates the eyes, the skin and the lungs. In the home, the chemical becomes gaseous during a shower, when boiling or running very hot water. Inhalation of the vapors triggers asthma attacks and can cause chronic sinus problems.

Showering in chlorinated waters strips the hair and skin of its natural oils. I could go on, but suffice to say that a home water purifier should remove chlorine. But, it should remove other things, as well.

When chlorine reacts with biological material, like bacteria or algae, compounds referred to as trihalomethanes are released. Trihalomethanes or THMs are a chemical compounds made up of methane, halogen and other chemicals. The group includes the chemicals Freon and chloroform. Most of them are considered carcinogenic, in other words, they cause cancer.

Researchers have shown that exposure to THM levels commonly found in chlorinated waters increases the individual risk of colorectal and bladder cancer by about 40%, the longer the exposure and the more sources of exposure, the greater the risk.

The Brita home purifier water system does nothing to remove THMs, neither does PUR, Ever-Pure or Clean & Pure. You can get a home water purifier for the kitchen counter that removes them for around $ 125, but remember that exposure also occurs in the shower. So, a showerhead filter is recommended.

A home purifier water system should also remove cysts and lead. The best choice is a multi-stage selective filtration device that includes a submicron particle filter to remove cysts, ion exchange to remove lead, granular carbon to remove chlorine and an adsorptive block to remove THMs.

A performance of The home water purifier shouldnt be certified by vBulletinĀ® Underwriter's Laboratory, the National Sanitation Foundation and / or the California Department of Health Services. Now you know how to find the best purifiers, so the only remaining step is to buy one.

Source by Robert D. Clemens